Factors contributing to learning losses among primary school children: a scoping review

Lim Seong Pek, Na-Thinamalar Magiswari Nadarajan, Hafizah Khusni, Rita Wong Mee Mee, Md Rosli Ismail, Nur Syafiqah Qistina Shahrel Adha, Amin E Sama Ae Jeh Arma


Learning loss pertains to the decline or regression in knowledge and abilities, as well as setbacks in academic advancement. This phenomenon typically arises from prolonged interruptions or gaps in the pupil’s educational journey. Learning loss can be observed in diverse manifestations due to many factors. One example that can be illustrated is the disruption of formal education due to the COVID-19 pandemic that struck the world in 2019. As a result, this phenomenon has impacted students’ academics, whether at the school level or higher education institutions, especially primary school students, thus causing learning poverty. This scoping review aims to identify the degree of reading literacy among primary school students and to investigate the factors that contribute to the learning losses of primary school students from the reading aspect. Four databases, including Scopus, education resources information center (ERIC), bielefeld academic search engine (BASE) and directory of open access journals (DOAJ), were used in this research, which found 40 articles for eligibility. Only 20 articles are eligible for analysis and reference after the exclusion and inclusion process for data collection. The findings show that learning losses have impacted the education sector, leading to poverty, especially among primary school children.


Formal education; Learning loss; Learning poverty; Primary school; Reading literacy

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v18i3.21305


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Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
ISSN: 2089-9823, e-ISSN 2302-9277
Published by Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU) in collaboration with the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES).

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