Development and Application of A Managerial Creativity Scale for School Principals

Naser Shirbagi, Amjad Kazemi


This study was conducted based on a dual purpose; the first purpose was validation of managerial creativity assessment scale from the perspective of teachers; the second purpose was establishing of a qualification profile of the principals` managerial creativity using this standard tool. The current research applied a positivist epistemological orientation with a quantitative approach and evaluation method. The study population involved 1256 Sanandaj high school teachers from which 296 teachers were selected by stratified random sampling using selected using Morgan Table. In evaluating the validity of managerial creativity questionnaire factor analysis was used and in assessing the reliability of it, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was applied Khandwalla (2003) to assess principles` managerial creativity by teachers and the influence of demographic variables on teachers` assessment. Based on the findings of the study teachers evaluated their principals` level of managerial creativity at a high level in their workplace. Moreover, it was revealed that teachers` demographic variables had no significant correlation to the scores of managerial creativity assessment.


Managerial creativity, Innovation, schools, principals, Leadership


Alvani, M (2006). General management. Tehran: Nay Publishing, 20th Ed.

Ameri, H. KozehChian, H. Azar, A. & Ehsani, M. (2002). The relationship between leadership style and creativity with the effectiveness of directors of physical education and sport science universities affiliated to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology. Journal of motion, 83, 123-141.

Aslanlv, P. Asadi, H. Goudarzi, M. & Kazemnejad, A. (2006). Effect relationship between the characteristics of individual principals of Physical Education Organization and the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology on creativity and conflict management. Quarterly move, 30, 41-29.

Barron, F. & Egan, D. (1968). Leaders and innovators in Irish management. Journal of management Studies, 5, 41-60

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Implications of a systems perspective for the study of creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dewas, D. (2007). Surveys in social research, translation Hushang Nayebi. Tehran: Nay Pub. 18th Edition

Dessler, G. (2013). Human resource management. Pearson education, Inc., publishing as prentice hall.

Ehsani Ghods, H. S. Abbaszadeh, M. M. (2011). The relationship between creativity and innovation components of a learning organization with teachers in high schools and colleges. New approach in Educational Administration Quarterly, 3, (4), 1-20.

Faizi, M. Chopani, H. & Hayat, A. (2010). The relationship between the management styles of principals on the creativity of teachers, school in the city of Sanandaj. Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 3, 123-103.

Gall, M., Borg, W. & Gall, J. (2007). Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Educational Sciences and Psychology, Translation: Ahmad Reza Nasr, Tehran: Samt Pub.

Goertzel, V. & Goertzel, M. G. (1976). Cradles of eminence. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

James, C., K, R. & Sternberg, J. (2010). The Cambridge handbook of creativity. London: Cambridge University Press.

Joibari, A. (2011). The Study of High Schools Principals’ Problems in Tehran City. International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

Henry, J. (1991). Introduction creative management. London: sage.

Khandwalla, N. P. (2003). Corporate creativity: the winning edge. Tata McGraw-Hill Pub. New Delhi.

Lopez, S. J. & Snyder, C. R. (2004). Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological review, 69, p.220- 232

Mumford, M. (2012). Handbook of organizational creativity. Elsevier Inc.

Newell, A. & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Niknami, M, TaqiPourZahir. A., Delaware, A. Ghaffari, M. (2009). Design and evaluation of educational administrators in Tehran causal model of creativity and innovation. New approach in the Journal of Educational Administration, University of Shiraz, 5, 1-28

Nelr, G. F. (1990). Art and science of creativity, translated by Ali Asghar Mosaddad, Shiraz: Shiraz University Press.

Omidi, A., Hamidi, M., Khabiri, M. & Safari, S. (1386). The relationship between structure and creativity principals of Physical Education Organization. Quarterly move, 33, 117-105.

Perkins, D. N. (1981). The mind’s best work. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University press.

Petrie, N. (2014). Future Trends in Leadership Development, Center for Creative Leadership.

Preeti, W. (2014). Managerial creativity as a function of discipline of study and risk taking behavior and their interaction. AIMA Journal of Management & Research, 8, 1-4.

Pirkhaefi, A. (2005). Creativity (basics and methods of training). Tehran: Phoenix Millennium.

Pourtahmasi, S. Tajvr, A. & Syedklan, S. (2010). Relationship between individual and organizational factors and creativity of high school principals’ city of Ardebil, Journal of ingenuity in science. 1, 22-40.

Prakash, C. J. (2011). Managerial creativity and work motivation of secondary school tribal teachers in relation to their occupational self-efficacy. International journal of research in commerce management. 2, (10) 26-40.

Rahnma, A., Byjnvnd, F. & Aliyari, M. (2011). Review and explanation of the philosophical foundations of creativity in terms of its application in teaching methods. Third National Conference on Education, Teacher Training University Shahid Rajai, 28 -29 May.

Rashid. F. (2012). Managerial creativity and work motivation of secondary school tribal teachers in relation to their occupational self-efficacy. IOSR Journal of humanities and social science (JHSS). 3, 53-60.

Rezaei, A. Mirkamali, M. & Atefi, S. (2011). The Relationship between the interests of executives with creative thinking and information technology education in secondary schools in Zahedan. Third National Conference on Education, Teacher Training University Shahid Rajai, 28 -29 May.

Runco, M. A. (2007). Creativity, Research, Development, and practice. Journal Cognitive and creativity. 15, 1-38

Saifhashemi, F. & Rajaeepour, S. (2003). Explore

the relation between philosophical mindset and creativity of high school principals in Isfahan Journal of Physical Education, 77, 32-64

Sarchhany, Z. & Jahany, J. (2011). The effect of individual factors on the creativity of high school principals in Shiraz. New approach in the Journal of Educational Administration. 5, 51-70.

Sayyadi, Y. Gholami, K. & Shirbagi, N. (2012). A survey of features and functions of principals: the construction and successful educational administrators standardized questionnaire. University of Kurdistan: unpulished MA thesis.

Scratchley, L. S. & Hakstian, A. R. (2001). The measurement and prediction of managerial creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 367–384.

Sehat, A. & Khalaghi A. (2012). The relationship between creativity and leadership style with training in technical schools and professional productivity. Journal of Technology of Education, the sixth, 6, (4), 317-327

Shaikh Alizadeh, H. Tejary, M. & Pyralaei, F. (2011). Estimates of creative organizational culture in the management of sports organizations. Journal of Sports Management, 11, 99-117.

Shalley, E., & Gilson, L. (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity? The Leadership Quarterly 15, 33–53.

Shariatmadari, M. & Tawangar, A. (2011). Relationship between learning organization and creativity of high school principals in Semnan province. Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 1, 77-93

Sternberg, R. J. (2010). The nature of creativity, Cambridge University Press.

Styhre. A & Sundgren. M. (2005). Managing creativity in organizations: Critique and practices. New York: Palgrave Macmillan

Yin C. (2010). Multiple Thinking and Creativity in School Leadership: A new Paradigm for Sustainable Development. The Hong Kong Institute of Education, China



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)
ISSN: 2089-9823, e-ISSN 2302-9277
Published by: Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU) in collaboration with Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES)

View EduLearn Stats